Life Cycle Management

Papers Presented for This Session
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Influencing State Government Hazardous Waste Management Policy and Product Procurement Using LCA
(abstract / slides as pdf )

Bob Boughton
Office of Pollution Prevention and Technology Development
California Department of Toxic Substances Control


Maximizing the Benefits of Environmental Management Systems through Life Cycle Assessment
(abstract / slides as pdf )

Shirish Sangle and Arvind Nema
National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE)


LCA for Environmental Management and Eco-design in the Electronics Industry -
State of the Art and Screening Approaches
(abstract / slides as pdf )

Karsten Schischke, Otmar Deubzer, Hansjörg Griese, Irina Stobbe
Technische Universität Berlin, Fraunhofer Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration


A Decision Support Tool For The Life Cycle Management Of Municipal Solid Waste
(abstract / slides as pdf)

Keith A. Weitz
RTI, EHSD


Abstracts for Session: LCM

INFLUENCING STATE GOVERNMENT HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICY AND PRODUCT PROCUREMENT USING LCA

Bob Boughton
Office of Pollution Prevention and Technology Development
California Department of Toxic Substances Control
bboughto@dtsc.ca.gov

It is widely recognized that traditional “end of pipe” regulatory methods rarely move generators beyond compliance. There is a growing interest in considering the broader implications for sustainability and environmental stewardship within government. The mission of the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) is to restore, protect and enhance the environment, to ensure public health, environmental quality and economic vitality. Underlying themes include considering sustainability and greater accounting for multimedia impacts in decision making. Within the Cal/EPA, the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) regulates the management of hazardous wastes. DTSC’s pollution prevention program is using life-cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool for evaluating the impacts of alternative management systems and measuring progress towards sustainability.

As an example of hazardous waste management alternative evaluation, a simplified comparative LCA was directed at used oil management. Used oil constitutes the largest volume hazardous waste (over 100 million gallons per year, 30% of total tonnage) in California. Two significantly different end-of-life scenarios for used oil management were modeled: (1) untreated used oil consumed as fuel and (2) re-refining to recover lubricating oil base stock and an asphalt by-product.

The results show that used oil combustion as fuel results in significant impacts compared to net benefits of re-refining. Notably, the terrestrial ecotoxicity and human toxicity impact categories dominate the comparison due to heavy metals emissions. From an environmental loading perspective, over 125,000 kg of total heavy metal emissions result from the over 40 million gallons per year of untreated used oil fuel. Another used oil treatment method, distillation of used oil to produce marine diesel oil fuel, reduces the heavy metals content to that of virgin fuel oil and results in substantial reduction of potential impacts as well.

Results of the comparative LCA will be presented. Steps taken to evaluate how policies can be changed to support the re-refining management method will be described. How the LCA results will be used to help influence procurement decisions of government agencies and of businesses interested in environmental stewardship will also be discussed.


Maximizing the Benefits of Environmental Management Systems through Life Cycle Assessment

Shirish Sangle and Arvind Nema
National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Vihar Lake, Powai, Mumbai-400087
Telephone: +91-22-8573371, Fax: +91-22-85732

Industry's role in environment protection is changing and growing. In fact, in the last one decade industry has assumed a very vital role in the protection of mother earth. This is amply evident by the initiatives taken by various industrial organizations at national and international forums viz. International Chamber of Commerce, World Business Council on Sustainable Development, Responsible CARE program, Confederation of Indian Industry, FICCI, etc. Increasing evidence shows that a corporation's understanding and response to environmental issues and concerns can have vital consequences for some kind of businesses. Industry is focusing on the preventive instead of end-of-pipe approaches, which were quite popular until 1980s. These preventive management practices allow us to establish link between environment and common business practices. Many industries have followed and embraced concepts and approaches like eco-efficiency, pollution prevention, green supply chain and manufacturing. Another promising strategy to reduce, minimize or eliminate environmental impacts of both manufacturing and product use while enhancing businesses success is the integration of Environmental Management System (EMS) with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) efforts.

A desirable relationship can and should exist between LCA and EMS. This relationship is however least understood but is crucial to fulfill the promise of truly sustainable organization.

In application, the institutionalization of LCA is difficult and tenuous at best. LCA is very data intensive and many a times such data is neither available nor easy to gather. This article suggests that through an explicit connection between life cycle thinking and EMS, life cycle thinking can extend the promise of EMS to reduce industry's environmental impact across the life cycle and produce business success. This will help industry to achieve total environmental stakeholder satisfaction, which is a crucial ingredient for the sustenance of any industry and its sustainable economic growth.


LCA FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND ECO-DESIGN IN THE ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY
- STATE OF THE ART AND SCREENING APPROACHES -

Karsten Schischke*, Otmar Deubzer**, Hansjörg Griese**, Irina Stobbe*
* Technische Universität Berlin, ** Fraunhofer Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration
Contact:
Karsten Schischke
Technische Universität Berlin, Forschungsschwerpunkt Technologien der Mikroperipherik
Sekr. TIB 4/2-1, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin, Germany
email: Karsten.Schischke@TU-Berlin.de

Life Cycle Assessment has become popular for environmental assessments of products. Now, results of LCAs are even influencing legislation. Vice versa, legislation adopts envi-ronmental assessments as a basic requirement for product design, e.g. proposal for a European EEE directive (impact on the environment of electrical and electronic equipment).
In recent years, LCA as an environmental assessment tool, designed to support the concept of sustainable development, has been frequently applied in various sectors of industry. As many key technologies for today's and future products emerge from the electronics industry, environmental assessment in this sector is of increasing importance.
As a main environmental topic for the electronics branch, the ban of lead, pushed forward by marketing and legislative developments, will be discussed in this presentation from an LCA point of view. There has been no complete LCA dealing with the topic of lead in elec-tronics and its alternatives up to now. An outlook on some of the most relevant environmental aspects in electronics life cycle will be given, such as mining of rare ores and fate of heavy metals in disposal.
Referring to implementation of environmental assessments into decision making procedures in electronics industry, the presentation gives an overview of the state of the art of LCAs for electronics. Main obstacles of the methodology will be described, which hinder an efficient application of LCAs as a design tool for electronic equipment. Hitherto, LCAs for complex electronic products, such as telecommunication products, are only applicable with serious restrictions due to severe data gaps in available data bases and missing impact data. Reliable LCAs within sensible time frames in electronics are only applicable for defined, small sys-tems, e.g. the evaluation of single components, or solder types, or interconnection technolo-gies. To overcome these boundaries, a set of screening methodologies, the IZM/EE-Toolbox, has been developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration (IZM) . This toolbox includes several methods to address main environmental requirements for the electronics industry, such as minimization of hazardous substances, Design for Recycling, energy consumption throughout the life cycle, and environmentally compatible processes and technologies. The concept of the Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) and the screening assessment of process toxicity (ProTox) are described in detail with relating examples.
This presentation will be open to discussions especially regarding the questions: How much simplification of environmental assessment is allowed? And how much correspondence with ISO 14.040 is possible for the electronics industry to apply environmental assessments as a decision tool?


A Decision Support Tool For The Life Cycle Management Of Municipal Solid Waste

Keith A. Weitz

RTI, EHSD
3040 Cornwallis Road
RTP, NC 27709
Ph: 919-541-6973
kaw@rti.org

One of the most difficult challenges facing municipalities in the U.S. is the management of solid waste. Local governments have the primary responsibility for the collection, treatment, and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). Efficient use of labor, equipment, materials, as well as minimizing energy consumption and emissions, are key to building a sustainable MSW management system. In developing sustainable strategies for MSW management, communities seek approaches that are economically viable and beneficial to the environment and quality of life over the long term. Although communities have had access to reliable cost information related to their MSW management systems, they have lacked comparable environmental information with which to assess the environmental aspects of alternative MSW management options. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) concepts and techniques provide solid waste planners and decisionmakers with an excellent framework to evaluate MSW management strategies.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development provided funding through a cooperative agreement with the Research Triangle Institute and its partners (North Carolina State University, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Franklin Associates, Roy F. Weston, and Five Winds International) to develop the computer-based decision support tool (MSW-DST) to support sustainable MSW management decisions. The U.S. Department of Energy has provided co-funding to this effort with emphasis on data collection. In addition, the Environmental Education and Research Foundation provided funding for the development of data to model state-of-the-art landfills.

The MSW-DST can be used for generic analyses or in conjunction with community-specific data such as waste generation and composition, recycling or diversion programs, and facility (e.g., landfill) design and operation parameters. The processes that can be modeled using the tool include multiple alternatives for waste collection, transfer stations, materials recovery facilities, mixed MSW and yard waste composting, combustion, refuse-derived fuel combustion, and disposal in a traditional, bioreactor, or ash landfill. Life-cycle inventory data and methods were developed for each waste management operations as well as equipment used in those operations. Life-cycle inventory data for the production of electrical energy and materials was also developed. A stand-alone database is currently in the final round of quality assurance reviews at EPA and it is anticipated that the database will be released this summer.

In this presentation, a brief background about the MSW-DST is provided and then recent applications of the tool are highlighted.