SE-412 88 Göteborg
Phone: +46 31 772 43 26
FAX: +46 31 82 74 21
Environmental concern in process development can be achieved in projects integrated with projects initiated for marketing purposes. One example is shown, where Arla, the biggest dairy company in Sweden, together with CIT Ekologik, has carried out an LCA of collection of milk and distribution of dairy products in order to get a certified Type III environmental declaration. The process of communication in order to collect and interpret data have contributed to a more long term work at Arla, which aims for a better environmental performance of the transportation services. The study results have given the drivers and managers an overview of the relative importance of different aspects of transportation and maintenance. Arla received a certified EPD in December 1999 for the service dairy transports.
Arla's EPD includes quantitative environmental data for the transportation of milk from the farms to the dairies and for the distribution of dairy products. Besides transportation, the systems investigated include production of fuels, maintenance of the vehicles and production of products used for maintenance, cleaning of the vehicles and use of refrigerating machines. As a the results of the study, attention has been given the emissions of zinc, copper and lead from brake pads, and a dialogue with truck producers have started. Another conclusion is that the most efficient actions are the ones focused on decreasing fuel consumption and emissions at collection and distribution; e.g. improving the route planning, improving the driving technique and renewing the truck park.
The transportation processes are clearly dominant as regards the use of energy and the contributions to global warming, acidification and eutrophication. The distribution of dairy products to retailers requires more energy and contributes more to the environmental impacts included in the LCA than the transportation of milk from the farms to the dairies.
Vito (Flemish Institute for Technological Research)
Phone: +32-14-33 58 55
FAX: +32-14-32 11 85
In order to anticipate these aspects and to support SMEs with the implementation of ecodesign, Vito developed 2 tools: the "Quick Scan" and a "selection scheme". The Quick Scan is a tool to screen the ecodesign potential of a company. It examines not only the company itself, but also the surroundings (suppliers, customers, etc.) and the entire product gamut of the company. In addition to this Quick Scan, Vito developed a selection scheme that allows a company to select the most appropriate tool for the environmental analysis of its products, based on a number of criteria. Since a lot of useful instruments already exist, it was the intention to give an inventory of these instruments and to offer a tool that guides companies with the selection of the for them best-fit instrument. The instruments considered in this selection scheme vary from a detailed life cycle assessment over abridged-LCA tools to simple checklists. The selection scheme only covers basic formats, no specific software programs are inventoried.
Both instruments are already applied in earlier projects and will be further elaborated during a second large-scale demonstration project that is recently started.
C. Ciantar and M. Hadfield
Tribology Design Research Unit
School of Design, Engineering and Computing
12 Christchurch Road
Bournemouth BH1 3NA
Phone: ++(44) (0) 1202 503762
FAX: ++(44) (0) 1202 503751
One of the difficulties facing this research work is product data acquisition. In view of this, published LCA results have been adopted to determine what the environmental influence of the hermetic compressor is as compared to the other components making up the product system. Since this research work focuses on the compressor to ameliorate the performance of the domestic refrigerator, the findings were of primal significance. Furthermore, data is also acquired from experimental bench tests. These are being carried out on actual hermetic compressors identical to the one mounted on the domestic refrigerator for which the LCA study was carried out. In this way, the environmental consequences resulting from the type of refrigerant/lubricant combination, characterised by viscosity, will be obtained from an energy consumption and product durability viewpoint. This study is seen as an opportunity to develop sustainable solutions by ensuring that a potential environmental benefit does not become a shift in environmental pollution.
A. Atik and H. Schulz
Darmstadt University of Technology
Institute for Production Engineering and Machine Tools (PTW)
D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Phone:++49 6151 166550
FAX:++49 6151 163356
To close the gap between LCA and product development within the research program "Development of Environmentally Sound Products" an ecological assessment method, based on the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) methodology was elaborated. Hereby the methodology was adapted to the requirements of the designer. E.g. it was necessary to extend the possibilities of data aggregation, especially regarding the toxicity of occurring substance flows. This developed method transfers individual results in comprehensive index scores, which represent an important decision support pointing into the right direction. By providing the possibility to analyze, how the results were achieved, the transparency of the assessment and aggregation of results is assured.
In a further step a software system for the design integrated LCA of products was developed. This "assessment system" works as an integrative part of the design environment, i.e. is able to exchange data and system functionality with other applications within the design environment, such as CAD- or PDM-System. The necessary product and process related data for the assessment is determined by a parallel modeling of the product shape, such as material and geometry (CAD-System) and the process chains (life cycle modeling system). The information required for the LCA is transmitted through the object oriented database system into the assessment system. In this way, the designer is able to perform an LCA efficiently. Using Fuzzy Set Theory the data in the assessment system can be expressed by fuzzy sets. This allows the presentation of existing uncertainties in the data and the assessment results. The realized assessment system enables a comparative ecological assessment of design alternatives. Proceeding from the potential environmental impact the alternatives can be analyzed systematically to determine the main responsible substances respectively product life cycle stages. The continuation towards causal processes and parts deliver the designer concretely key issues to optimize the design solution. With a prototype of the described assessment system the basic methodology and its applicability have been demonstrated.
Keywords: Design for Environment (DfE), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), design environment, CAD-System
U.S. EPA DfE
The LCA is evaluating the full life-cycle of the products. The life-cycle inventory data (material inputs and outputs) for the manufacturing and end-of-life phase was collected from companies in the United States and Asia. The inventory data are being used to characterize impacts in the life-cycle impact assessment phase. Some of the LCA impact categories being evaluated include: resource consumption, energy/water/landfill space use, global warming, ozone depletion, and photochemical smog formation. In addition, selected product materials, such as lead in CRTs, and mercury and liquid crystals in LCDs, are being assessed in a streamlined CTSA, to characterize potential human health and environmental toxicity impacts associated with the use of these product systems.
This paper will present the LCA/CTSA approach used for the CDP, the status of the project, and a summary of life-cycle inventory data.