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InLCA Session III A - Management & Regulatory Issues
Click here to download a zipped copy of the abstracts and slide presentations for this session.
An Integrated Life Cycle Assessment and Financial Analysis of the Implications of Implementing the Proposed Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive

Presenter: Anne Landfield
(download slides / summary in pdf)

Dr. Neil Kirkpatrick, Stephanie Adda, Dr. David Dowdell, Dominique Laurent and Rachel Noel

Ecobalance UK (The Ecobilan Group)
Old Bank House
1 High Street
Arundel, West Sussex
BN18 9AD, United Kingdom

David Smith, Emma Doyle, Lydia Richardson, Miranda MacKay and Tamar Bello

Dames & Moore
St. Georges House
St. Georges Road
Wimbledon, London
SW19 4DR, United Kingdom

Ecobalance UK and the Economics and Business Strategy Unit of Dames & Moore, have undertaken an integrated Life Cycle Assessment and financial analysis of the implications of implementing the proposed Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive.

The study was commissioned by the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to:

Eight products were selected for consideration in this study: personal computers, washing machines, refrigerators, televisions, telephones, vacuum cleaners, lawnmowers and kettles. For each product, the following scenarios were modeled:

In the case of the latter, a further analysis was undertaken to assesses the relative effects of the following scenarios:

Sensitivity analyses were carried out to address points of interest for individual products, where applicable.

In this paper, the methodology employed and the results obtained will be described. The advantages of an integrated Life Cycle Assessment and Financial Analysis methodology will also be discussed from both the business and Government perspectives as well as the contribution made by this approach to the debate concerning sustainable development.

Life Cycle Analysis and Environmental Management

Presenters: B. Tod Delaney and James D. Heeren
(slides in pdf)

B. Tod Delaney, Ph.D., P.E.
James D. Heeren, P.E.

First Environment, Inc.
90 Riverdale Road, Riverdale, NJ 07457

An ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) may be used to identify and manage the environmental impact of an organization's activities, products and services on the environment. The skillful design and conscientious implementation of an EMS will make it possible to not only improve regulatory compliance and environmental performance, but also to reach "beyond compliance" to accomplish objectives in such areas as sustainable development, global climate change, energy conservation, and efficiency. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can be incorporated directly into the aspect/impact analysis of an EMS to assist in establishing and achieving these management objectives. One environmental business concern in which LCA is especially helpful is that of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

The generation of a Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) is the most appropriate way to calculate GHG emissions. The inventory process can be used to quantify all emissions from a facility. For project costing purposes, these can be converted into standard emission units of carbon on a yearly basis which using market value estimates can be translated into a net present value. This value can be used in making strategic business decisions such as selection of siting and technology options; evaluation of contract agreements regarding GHG emissions; and, evaluation of an individual country's GHG strategy.

An LCI was recently conducted for the newly patented technology "One Furnace, Two Functions", in which an additive allows a power plant to also function as cement plant. Through the addition of ash modification components (AMC) to pulverized coal fuel, the resulting ash becomes high strength cement clinker. The AMC also improves combustion and reduces sulphur emissions. As such, a low emission power plant also functions as a cement kiln. In order to more fully evaluate the benefits of this combined technology, especially with respect to emissions, the LCI was conducted to compare the emissions of the "One Furnace, Two Functions" technology with that of traditional coal-fired power plants and cement plants. Life Cycle Inventories were prepared, with the aid of publicly available LCI data, for each process conducted separately and together as "One Furnace, Two Functions". The subsequent comparison demonstrates the potential net emission reduction which can be expected from the "One Furnace, Two Functions" technology. This substantial emission credit is a valuable business asset, which may impact the organization's decision to pursue development of the technology.


A Methodical Approach on Ecobalancing and Environmental Impact Assessment Based on Material Flow Networks - A Case Study on a German Beer Brewery

Presenter: J.C. Marx-Gómez
(slides in pdf)

A. Faustmann, V. Lutze, J. Marx-Gómez, C. Rautenstrauch

Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Institute for Technical and Business Information Systems
P.O.Box 4120
D-39016 Magdeburg
Phone: +49 (391) 67 18068
FAX: +49 (391) 67 11216

The method presented in this paper has been successfully applied to originate an eco-balance for a beer production process of a German brewery aiming at facilitating the detection of all involved materials and energies within the process. The encountered items included in the eco-balance reflect the material and energy flows of the various departments involved. Furthermore, it is necessary to exert an impact assessment encompassing the identification of all environmental repercussions and deficits caused by the materials with the aim to provide improvements regarding the production process.

The German brewery "Hasseroeder Brauerei GmbH" located in Wernigerode is a one-product company and produces exclusively beer of the brand "Hasseroeder Premium Pils". The company has decided to prevent, decrease and possibly to eliminate the environmental pollution resulting from industrial activities. Requirements and claims regarding environmental control are resulting from regulations by severe rules of government authorities and the continuously increasing sensitisation of the German population concerning environmental topics. The objective of the eco-balance at Hasseroeder brewery is to carry out a first comprehensive inventory and an evaluation of environmentally relevant activities. Based on the results of the obtained eco-balance an environmental management system (EMS) should be introduced. At the end of the described project the Hasseroeder brewery will receive the certificate according to EC regulation 1836/93 which is equivalent to ISO 14001.

The approach to represent material and energy flows of such a complex production system employs the use of material flow networks (MFNs). The modelling of the material flow net, the preparation and evaluation of the eco-balance has been conducted with the aid of the software tool Umberto 3.1. It is a versatile and flexible software tool for life cycle assessment (LCA) and eco-balancing based on the unique method of material flow networks. After specifying and entering the appropriate data from the production process it is possible to generate automatically detailed material and energy balances. The obtained balances are related to the whole net or can be applied for specific sub-nets. The evaluation occurs according to different assessment methods and valuation procedures provided by Umberto.

3M's Life Cycle Management Process: A Practical Approach

Presenter: Ed Price
(slides in pdf)

Ed Price

Corporate Product Responsibility
3M Center, Bldg. 290-04-01
St Paul, MN 55144
Phone: 651-733-5342
FAX: 651-736-9278

Donald Coy

Corporate Product Responsibility
3M Center, Bldg. 290-04-01
St Paul, MN 55144
Phone: 651-736-0641
FAX: 651-736-9278

Sheldon Lande

Corporate Product Responsibility
3M Center, Bldg. 290-04-01
St Paul, MN 55144
Phone: 651-736-0987
FAX: 651-736-9278

Product Responsibility at 3M is addressing society's, our customers and our own expectations for a healthy environment and for products that can be manufactured, distributed, used and disposed of safely. Product Responsibility expectations today call for increased consideration of the life cycle impacts of products and movement toward sustainable development. 3M has developed a Life Cycle Management (LCM) methodology to help business units take a systematic and holistic look at the environmental, health, safety, and energy (EHS&E) issues pertaining to products. LCM applies from the product concept stage through materials acquisition, R&D operations, manufacturing operations, customer use and final disposal/recycle. Use of this methodology helps assure business units that EHS&E issues have been addressed and that possible EHS&E marketing opportunities have been identified.


Programmatic Environmental Health And Safety Analyses-The Military's Approach To Environmental Life-Cycle Planning

Presenter: Barry Langer

Barry Langer

411 Hackensack Avenue
Hackensack, NJ 07601
Phone: 201-498-7346
FAX: 201-489-1592

Over the last several years, the DoD has firmly committed to incorporating environmental considerations in the design and modification of all weapon systems. In the mid 1990's, DoD revised its acquisition protocol (DoD 5000.2R) to mandate that all ESH issues surrounding the life cycle of a weapon system be addressed during the acquisition process. This process is called a Programmatic Environmental, Safety and Health Evaluation, or PESHE.

The PESHE process must be started at the earliest phases of the acquisition process and evaluate all aspects of the program including manufacturing, O&M and demilitarization. The PESHE process is designed to continue and evolve throughout the system's life-cycle, and must be modified if a weapon system is modified, and updated when new technologies are developed related to the weapon system .

A PESHE evaluation includes the following specific ESH areas:

The purpose of this paper will be to present a detailed analysis of DoD's PESHE process, and its advantages in reducing hazardous material usage, waste generation, life-cycle costs, and overall environmental risk.

Life Cycle Inventory of a Modern Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

Presenter: Remi Coulon
(download slides in pdf)

Vince Camobreco

Ecobalance, Inc.
7101 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 700
Bethesda, MD 20814
Phone: 301-657-5943
FAX: 301-657-5948

Robert Ham

Solid & Hazardous Waste Engineering
N1983 Morter Road
Lodi, WI 53555
Phone: 608-592-2255
FAX: 608-592-2256

Morton Barlaz

North Carolina State University
Box 708, Mann Hall
Raleigh, NC 27695-7908
Phone: 919-515-7676
FAX: 919-515-7908

Ed Repa

Environmental Research and Education Foundation
4301 Connecticut Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20008
Phone: 202-364-3773
FAX: 202-364-3792

Marty Felker

Materials Processing, Inc.
124 North Prospect Ave.
Bartlett, IL 60103
Phone: 630-540-0460
FAX: 630-540-0461

Caroline Rousseau

94, rue de Provence
BP 693-09 - 75425 Paris France
Phone: (33) 1
FAX: (33) 1

Jerome Rathle

Zone Portuaire de Limay - 291
Avenue Dreyfous Ducas
78520 Limay France

The Environmental Research and Education Foundation (EREF), in conjunction with Ecobalance and researchers from the University of Wisconsin and North Carolina State, conducted a comprehensive 2-year project on the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of a modern municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. Data for the model came from both primary (over 100 landfills worldwide) and secondary data sources. Partners in the project included waste management companies from North American and Europe (including Waste Management Inc., SITA and CREED).

The project assesses the environmental impact of landfills over their entire life cycle including long term gas and leachate production and treatment. It includes a landfill life cycle model that involves all processes related to the landfill (construction, transportation and processing of the waste, management, closure, and post-closure care). The LCI model includes over 100 model input parameters used in defining the landfill LCI. The project also involved developing a decomposition model including a multimedia decomposition landfill model (air emissions, water effluents, and ultimate waste). Over 250 model input parameters are used to define landfill gas and leachate production and treatment. The models were incorporated into a user friendly software that allows users to test the influence of changing input parameter values.

The landfill LCI model was based on landfilling one average ton of residential MSW. However, the software has the ability to report the LCI of the individual components of the MSW. For example, the model can determine how much landfill gas emissions were attributable to only paper in the waste landfilled. In this way the LCI results for landfilling a ton of waste are allocated to the different waste components. The ability of the software to adjust the landfill profile for different waste compositions allows the user to look at the effects of changing waste compositions based on their local condition or from waste management strategies such as source reduction or recycling. The software can also define best control and management options for MSW landfills by providing benchmark emission calculations from U.S. and European landfills.

The paper will present the emissions and resource consumption associated with a modern MSW landfill. The paper will also demonstrate how the model and software can be used to assess the importance of (1) the various stages in the life cycle system, (2) the time horizon selected, and (3) the air and water management techniques selected.

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