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InLCA Session IIA - Pollution Prevention
Click here to download a zipped copy of the abstracts and slide presentations for this session.
Using a Life Cycle Perspective to Identify Mercury Pollution Prevention Opportunities

Presenter: Barry Leopold

Kenneth Stone, EPA Project Officer
National Risk Management Research Laboratory
26 W. MLK Dr.
Cincinnati, Ohio 45268
Phone: 513-569-7474
FAX: 513-569-7111

Barry Leopold, Project Manager
11251 Roger Bacon Dr.
Reston, Virginia 20190
Phone: 703-318-4605
FAX: 703-736-0826

This research effort uses a life cycle perspective to identify mercury pollution prevention opportunities. By applying a cradle-to-grave perspective to the mercury issue, this research effort supports the Environmental Protection Agency's Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxics (PBT) Initiative, whose goal is to reduce the risk and future exposure to PBTs using life cycle multi-media approaches. Since mercury is so ubiquitous ­ it is a common contaminant in raw materials such as coal and is also found in many common commercial products such as thermostats, switches, and thermometers ­ mercury is a particularly serious concern to human health and the environment.

The procedure used in this research effort is as follows:

Using a sector-by-sector approach, this effort assessed pollution prevention opportunities throughout the following life cycle stages:

The mercury sectors identified in this research effort include:

This research effort identified mercury flows between life cycle stages in the U.S. and the major sources and users of mercury. The research also revealed reservoirs of mercury within certain life cycle stages. Pollution prevention opportunities were identified for all sectors and life cycle stages.

The next step in this research effort is to prioritize the mercury pollution prevention opportunities based on environmental benefits, technical feasibility, and cost. Additional detailed research to validate the pollution prevention options may be conducted. Ultimately, this life cycle approach may be used on other PBT chemicals to target pollution prevention efforts.

Environmental Improvement of Automotive Electronic Devices by DFE Techniques Based on Life Cycle Impact Assessment

Presenter: Francesc Castells
(slides in pdf)

Juan Carlos Alonso
Jordi Bigorra

Lear Automotive (Electrical and Electronic Division) Spain, S.L.
European Technological Center (Applied Research Dpt.)
Poligono Industrial, Planta 1. PO Box 23
43800 Valls. Tarragona, SPAIN
Phone: (+34) 977 61 73 89
FAX: (+34) 977 61 77 89

Francesc Castells
Julio Rodrigo

University Rovira i Virgili
Cta. Salou s/n
43006 Tarragona, SPAIN
Phone: (+34) 977 55 96 44
FAX: (+34) 977 55 96 99

The conference objective is to present the results obtained in the application of LCA methodology to three electronic products used in the automotive sector.

The automotive industry is developing more environmental friendly cars focusing the efforts in three major points: Reduce emissions during manufacturing phase, reduce emissions during use phase and recyclability improvement at the end of their life. DfE and LCA methodologies should be used in order to have this "life-cycle" point of view.

The analysis has been done in collaboration with the University Rovira i Virgili using the EIME model (from Ecobilan Co.). The products analysed were the following:

- Two electronic devices under fabrication by Lear Corporation in its Electrical & Electronic Division (Spain)

- One advanced smart junction box (ASJB) prototype developed in its European Technological Center (Spain)

The impact results from these LCA studies lighted the major environmental burdens associated with these products and the points to be improved in order to reduce their total environmental impact. For example, the results showed the high environmental impact associated with the Integrated Circuits due the energy consumption during their manufacturing phase.

These results and the Design for Environment Guidelines for electronic products (also developed during the study) have been used to define the targets for a new advanced project: the "green" version of the ASJB.

The objective of this advanced project is to design and prototype a "green" ASJB trying to include the DfE recommendations and reducing as much as possible the impacts detected in the LCA analysis. This objective could be achieved for example:

- using less integrated circuits by joining their functions

- printed circuit boards surface optimisation

- using electronic components and printed circuit boards without hazardous substances

- etc.

Life Cycle Management

Presenter: Wendy White

Dr. Robert J. Kainz, Senior Manager

Pollution Prevention and Life Cycle Management
DaimlerChrysler Corporation
CIMS 482-00-51
800 Chrysler Drive
Auburn Hills, MI 48326-2757
Phone: 248-576-5496
FAX: 248-576-7369

Ms. Wendy S. White, Project Manager

The Traverse Group, Inc.
3772 Plaza Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone: 734-747-9301
FAX: 734-747-9229

Background: Life Cycle Management (LCM) is a tool used to identify and compare relevant costs associated with alternative products and manufacturing processes. LCM incorporates environmental, health, safety, and recycling costs and considerations into a traditional cost and performance analysis. It is a comparative decision-making tool that evaluates the difference between products and processes to arrive at the most economically and environmentally attractive option in a systematic business decision framework.

LCM assists the OEM with design for end of life vehicle management by identifying and assessing criteria relevant to end of life disposition. LCM also assigns costs to criteria in several environmental, health, safety, and recycling categories to identify and compare the tradeoffs between available options for component and material selection and design.

Presentation Content: This presentation will inform attendees about the basic aspects of Life Cycle Management and how it can be used in automotive design and manufacturing to reduce costs for the OEM. The speaker will present the Life Cycle Management concepts and terminology used by DaimlerChrysler Corporation to manage its environmental, health, safety and recycling considerations along with standard design considerations to better manage costs. Standards for recycled content, recyclability, and material selection will be discussed. Methods for collecting and evaluating pertinent data from the supply chain will be presented. Attendees will learn how to utilize available resources to make Life Cycle Management decisions. Examples of the use of these Life Cycle Management principles will be presented, and attendees will be given the opportunity to assess a real-life situation with the tools presented during the presentation.

Use of LCA and TCA for the Evaluation of
Pollution Prevention Alternatives

Presenter: Kun M. Lee
(slides in pdf)

S. Ha, Kun M. Lee, and Sangwon Suh

School of Environmental and Urban Engineering
Ajou University
5 Wonchundong, Suwon, Korea 442-749
Phone: 82 331 219 2405
FAX: 82 331 215 5145

Environmental impact as well as total costs of a reference product and alternative products were estimated using the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the total cost assessment (TCA) methods. A microwave filter for the mobile telephone communication station was chosen as the reference product. The filter is made of aluminum and coated with silver. The functional unit of the filter system was one piece of the filter and the system boundary for the LCA encompassed the entire life cycle stages. The system boundary for the TCA, however, was limited to the manufacturing of the filter.

An LCA identifies key environmental issues of the reference product, which in turn leads to the alternative products that reduce the stress on the environment. In addition, an LCA generates the weighted impact (WI) of a product system in the form of a single score. TCA estimates the capital costs, the operating costs and the revenues all associated with the manufacturing of the filter. A relative net cash flow based on the present worth method was calculated. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine weight of the WI and that of the total costs. Each weight was then applied to its corresponding WI and total costs of the reference product and the alternative products. This generates ecoscore defined as the ecological and economic score of a product. Comparison of the ecoscore of each product allows one to choose a desirable product with respect to the environmental and economic aspects.

The identified key issues of the reference product indicated that aluminum, silver and the filter manufacturing were the most dominant activities. Alternative products to the reference product were determined. The TCA and the determination of weights are currently underway.

The Use of Life Cycle Costing in Selecting Pollution Prevention Technologies in NAVAIR, U.S. Navy

Presenter: Bill Custer
(slides in pdf)

Bill Custer

271 Market Street
Port Hueneme, CA 93041
Phone: 805-488-1919
FAX: 804-488-9619

Technologies that solve tough environmental problems often promise lower costs and improved environmental performance. Therefore, it is important for cost-benefit analyses (CBA) to both measure the cost impact as well as the environmental benefit. SAIC provided engineering support to NAVAIR in conducting cost-benefit impact analyses on 26 environmental technologies being evaluated for military applications. SAIC assessed the life cycle benefits, productivity, energy efficiency, and capital/operating costs.

The most typical CBA approach is to pick a "typical" site, do a cost-benefit analysis, and then either deploy the technology to all potential sites, or none of them. However, each military operation is unique, and the costs and benefits of applying a particular technology will vary from site to site. Our innovative approach evaluated all the potential sites, considering the major facility characteristics on a site-by-site basis. A simple spreadsheet sensitivity analysis optimized the deployment scenario to only the sites that benefit from the change. The spreadsheet modeled hazardous material usage, emission rates, and waste reductions from process changes and material substituions. Cost-benefit metrics included net present value, payback and rate of return, and sensitivity analyses were undertaken to measure the economic impacts on changes in site or technial variables.

Risk-Based Integration of Economics and Life Cycle Environment: Two Methods

Presenter: Gregory Norris

Gregory Norris

147 Bauneg Hill Rd, Suite 200
North Berwick, ME 03906
Phone: 207-676-7640
FAX: 207-676-7647

In nearly all private industry applications of LCA, the decision making situations which LCA addresses must also eventually take the economic consequences of alternative products or product designs into account. However, neither the internal nor external economic aspects of the decisions are within the scope of developed LCA methodology, nor are they properly addressed by existing LCA tools. This traditional separation of life cycle environmental assessment from economic analysis has limited the influence and relevance of LCA for decision making, and left uncharacterized the important relationships and trade-offs between the economic and life cycle environmental performance of alternative product design decision scenarios.

This presentation demonstrates how full-scale, standard methods of LCA can and have been tightly, logically, and practically integrated with standard methods for cost accounting, life cycle cost analysis, and scenario-based economic risk modeling. The result is an ability to take both economic and environmental performance ­ and their tradeoff relationships ­ into account in product/process design decision making. It will review and compare the design philosophies behind two different tools for integrating economics and LCA, and will present illustrative case studies of the application of each to real-world problems.

One of the tools is a risk/scenario-based software system for Total Cost Assessment which links LCA databases and results together with company financial reporting systems. The tool, TCAce, was developed with guidance and input from a consortium of multinational companies.

The other software tool, PTLaser, tightly integrates life cycle cost analysis, non-linear process modeling, and monte carlo uncertainty propagation to provide a modeling core that links with LCA software to bring economic analysis and uncertainty analysis.

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